[32], In the Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805) he was posted with his corps in the center between Soult and Lannes, and contributed to defeating the attempt of the right wing of the allies to outflank the French army. Soon after his birth 'Baptiste' was added to his name, to distinguish him fr… Synopsis. Jean-Baptiste was born in early hours on 26 January 1763 at Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques and as the younger son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. They declared independence, adopted a liberal constitution and elected Danish crown prince Christian Frederick to the throne. L’offensive éclair de la France. Douze moments clés de l'histoire de France. MacMillan, New York. This was a trick; played upon him by Sieyès and Roger Ducos, the directors allied to Napoleon. [91] To render it the more insulting, Napoleon scheduled it for the Crown Prince's birthday. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [101], "Separated as we are from the rest of Europe, our policy, as well as our interest, will make us carefully abstain from mixing in any discussion foreign to the two people of Scandinavia; but my duty and your dignity will always be the rule of our conduct, and both one and the other prescribe to us never to permit interference in our internal affairs. Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638, in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium King Charles Xiv John Of Sweden … Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was a French commander during the French Revolutionary/Napoleonic Wars who later ruled Sweden as King Charles XIV John. Recommended to you based on your activity and what's popular • Feedback Professor of History, University of Uppsala, Sweden. Charles IV (18/19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328), called the Fair (le Bel) in France and the Bald (el Calvo) in Navarre, was last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre (as Charles I) from 1322 to 1328.Charles was the third son of Philip IV; like his father, he was known as "the fair" or "the handsome". pp. If I fall, you will find yourself with 40,000 men at the gates of Paris. Son règne (exceptionnellement long) voit la France remplacer l'Espagne au premier rang en Europe. [106] I could perhaps have been able to agree to become Napoleon’s ally: but when he attacked the country that had placed its fate in my hands, he could find in me no other than an opponent. However, Bernadotte maintained strict discipline amongst his troops and his good treatment of the Danes made him popular with the populace and Danish Royal Family. Bernadotte’s dream dissolved, and his brief visit to Paris after the armistice was not glorious. Mémoires de Louis XIV pour l'instruction du Dauphin (1860) avec Charles Dreyss (1821-1905) comme Éditeur scientifique ... Louis XIV (roi de France, 1638-1715) Voir aussi. [99] Charles John could have named his terms to Norway, but in a key concession accepted the Norwegian constitution and its own political autonomy. Lloyd, John; Mitchinson, John; Harkin, James (2013). Peint en buste, légèrement de trois quarts, le souverain porte une armure ornée de fleurs de lis, emblèmes de la maison royale de France. Despite the distrust of French politicians, however, dramatic new possibilities now opened up to him: he was invited to become crown prince of Sweden. [27], In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed that Bernadotte head to New France to serve as governor of Louisiana, which was to be transferred back to French control following the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. But the King rode out the storms, and the 25th anniversary of his succession to the throne in 1843 was an occasion for successful royalist propaganda and popular acclaim in both Norway and Sweden. The events that shook Europe and that gave her back her freedom are known. Charles XIV John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1818 until his death. Chandler, David G. (1987) Napoleon's Marshals. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty. Accueil Artistes Oeuvres Acheter A Propos Achetez 3 posters et obtenez 10% + 10% sur tous les articles. [81][98] The military operations in 1814 were to be Sweden's last war to this day. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. We do not know how it may turn out. He was also the first Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, Italy. Ganzon, Guadalupe Fores-; Mañeru, Luis (19 July 1995). "Decline and Consolidation: Sweden, the Napoleonic Wars and Geopolitical Restructuring in Northern Europe". Le 6 avril 1672, Louis XIV déclare la guerre aux Provinces-Unies (Pays-Bas du Nord) afin d’abaisser l’outrageuse puissance économique et commerciale de la petite république protestante. [84], The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden placed the government, and especially the control of foreign policy, entirely in his hands. Le 5 février 1818, il succède à Charles XIII sous le nom de Charles XIV Jean … [9] In early 1790 he was promoted to Adjudant-Major, the highest rank for non-commissioned officers in the Ancien Régime. The Swedish-Norwegian war of 1814 is credited as Sweden's last direct conflict and war.[3]. Charles XIV John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1818 until his death. 245–46, Meredith, William George (1829). Review essay: food and history Worst party would be the costume ball given by Charles VI of France in 1393 … Early life and family When King Charles XIII of Sweden died 1818, the Crown Prince was crowned King, first in Stockholm as King Charles XIV John av Sverige and then in Trondheim as King Charles III John of Norway. Then, in January 1812, Napoleon suddenly occupied Swedish Pomerania. The Emperor, however, was reluctant to exert a decisive influence, and the initiative fell to the young Swedish baron Carl Otto Mörner. He re-organized and trained his forces, named by the Emperor as the Army of Antwerp, by instilling discipline in old soldiers too long at the depots and teaching raw conscripts their trade. [67] In a proclamation issued to his troops at Antwerp he made an implied charge against Napoleon of having neglected to prepare the proper means of defense for the Belgian coast. Their relationship, at first friendly, was soon embittered by rivalries and misunderstandings. [62] After the battle, Bernadotte complained to Napoleon for having, in violation of all military rules, ordered Dupas to act independently of his command, and for having thereby caused great loss of life to the Saxons, and tendered his resignation. Bernadotte was, through marriage to Désirée Clary, brother-in-law to Joseph Bonaparte, and thus a member of the extended Imperial Family. [94] Thereafter, the Crown Prince declared the neutrality of Sweden and opened negotiations with the UK and Russia. Coronation of Charles XIV John as King of Sweden in Stockholm Cathedral, Coronation of Charles III John as King of Norway in Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Bernadotte communicated Mörner's offer to Napoleon who at first treated the situation as an absurdity, but later came around to the idea and diplomatically and financially supported Bernadotte's candidacy. However, the death of his father when Bernadotte was just 17 stopped the youth from following his father's career. He was the first monarch of the Bernadotte dynasty. Louis however saw another way to attain more power. April Fools Day itself is thought to have originated in 16th century when King Charles XIV switched France to the new Gregorian calendar. [65] Bernadotte, with his customary skill, took command of a chaotic situation wherein troops from all over the Empire and its vassal states, and raw conscripts, were sent to Holland under divided command. Charles XIII & II also Carl, Swedish: Karl XIII (7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death.He was the second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, sister of Frederick II of Prussia.. Jean Baptiste Bernadotte/Karl XIV Johan. Remise de 10% sur tous les articles! Charles John's reign witnessed the completion of the southern Göt… As Bernadotte was brother-in-law to Joseph, and close friends with his other brothers and sisters, Napoleon is thought to have been considering the welfare of his family in the possible event of his death on the battlefield, as well as the future of the country, by leaving his erstwhile rival in a position to seize the reins of government as, of his former rivals, only Bernadotte had the political skill and popularity to maintain the Republic. However, the birth of the King of Rome put an end to Napoleon's need for an heir. [4] Bernadotte's promotions came both from the esteem of his commanders as well as from his men; having been elected to the rank of lieutenant colonel and colonel by his men, though he refused both nominations in favor of traditional advancement. Charles John forced the Danish king to cede Norway to Sweden after the War of the Sixth Coalition, leading to the Swedish-Norwegian war of 1814 where Norway was defeated after a single summer’s conflict. [40] Bernadotte wrote to Napoleon that "I see my efforts perpetually paralyzed by a hidden force over which I can not prevail. Of the latter, Bernadotte was gifted in his ability to inspire his men to prodigious feats of valor. The painting was completed the following year. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. Livraison gratuite. Louis XIV, the ruler of France from the late seventeenth century to the early eighteenth century, claimed, “I am the state.” He considered this to be absolutism. This did not prevent him from beginning to accumulate a sizable fortune with the “tributes” he received from Hanover and the Hanseatic city of Bremen. Expand/collapse Charles XIV Papers, 1795-1805. On the other hand, the King’s autocratic tendencies, restrictions on the liberty of the press, and his reluctance to introduce liberal reforms in commercial and industrial policy and in the organization of the Swedish Riksdag led to a growing opposition that culminated during the late 1830s with the trial of journalist M.J. Crusenstolpe and the resultant Rabulist riots, leading to some demands for his abdication. "The Triumph of Neutrality : Bernadotte and European Geopolitics (1810–1844)", Revue D’ Histoire Nordique, No. Charles John had been regent and de facto head of state upon his arrival, and took an increasing role in government from 1812 onward, with Charles XIII reduced to a mute witness in government councils following a stroke. He extended France’s eastern borders at the expense of the Habsburgs and secured the Spanish throne for his grandson. Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte French revolutionary soldier: Marshal of France under Napoleon: elected Crown Prince of Sweden 1810: King Charles XIV... Charles XIV , 1763-1844. [39][40], After the Battle of Jena, Bernadotte crushed the Prussian Reserve Army, all fresh troops fortified behind a marsh and the River Saale, under Duke Eugen of Württemberg at Halle (17 October 1806), though Imperial Headquarters did not much appreciate this victory. Koht, Halvdan. [14], At the Battle of Theiningen (1796), where the Austrians outnumbered the French three-to-one,[15] Bernadotte's rear-guard successfully repulsed numerous attacks while inflicting heavy losses on the enemy, preventing the Archduke Charles from cutting off the retreat of the French army over the Rhine after its defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Würzburg. Moreover, none of Napoleon's brothers were interested in going to Sweden and his nephews were too young, as the Swedes did not want the hazards of minority rule in the event King Charles died prematurely. Recueil de lettres originales, de minutes et de pièces réunies par Gaignières, pour servir à l'histoire de France depuis le règne de Charles VII, jusqu'à celui de Louis XIV. In 1809 a palace revolution had overthrown King Gustav IV of Sweden and had put the aged, childless, and sickly Charles XIII on the throne. [10], Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion. Though blunt in speech, he was cautious and farsighted in action. Charles XIV & III John, also Carl John, Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death.Before he became king, he was also the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in Southern Italy, between 1806 and 1810.. [34][35][36] The construction began in 1825, but the Storting halted the funding after the costly foundation was laid and demanded that the appointed architect, Hans Linstow, construct a simpler palace. At the Battle of Wagram (5 July 1809), he entered battle with his Saxon corps, to which the division of Dupas was attached and which formed his reserve. 169-170, 256-257. Bernadotte was born in Pau, France, as the son of Jean Henri Bernadotte (Pau, Béarn, 14 October 1711 – Pau, 31 March 1780), prosecutor at Pau, and his wife (married at Boeil, 20 February 1754) Jeanne de Saint-Jean (Pau, 1 April 1728 – Pau, 8 January 1809), niece of the Lay Abbot of Sireix. Louis XIV de Charles Le Brun (1619-1690, France) | Reproductions D'art De Musée Charles Le Brun | WahooArt.com. [5], Bernadotte joined the army as a private in the Régiment Royal–La Marine on 3 September 1780,[6] and first served in the newly conquered territory of Corsica. 250–56, 268–72. Managed by: Trouvez les King Charles Xiv John Of Sweden images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. [108] The main street in Oslo, Slottsgaten, would later be named after Charles John as Karl Johans gate. Charles XIV & III John, also Carl John, Swedish and Norwegian: Carl Johan (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. In his farewell note to Bernadotte on his way to Italy, Napoleon wrote: "I am going to fling myself once more into the hazards of war. pp. Chaque numéro retrace la vie d'un grand personnage de l'histoire et met en lumière des lieux hautement emblématiques du patrimoine. A post shared by Charles-Laurent Lelievre (@laurent.xiv) on Feb 18, 2017 at 11:45am PST Given interest in this stud, GPB decided to do some research and present 7 facts about Charles … Charles XIV John or Carl John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte [1]; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (proclaimed as Charles XIV John, but in recent times referred to accurately in Norway as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death in 1844.. [112], Louis-Émile Vanderburch and Ferdinand Langlé's 1833 play Le Camarade de lit ("The Bedfellow") depicts Bernadotte as King of Sweden; an old grenadier claims that, as a young man, Bernadotte received a tattoo of a scandalous republican motto: either Mort aux Rois ("Death to kings"), or Mort aux tyrans ("Death to tyrants"), or Mort au Roi ("Death to the king"). [100] Ultimately the British and Austrians vetoed the idea, and the Allies agreed that if Napoleon were to be deposed, the only acceptable alternative was the restoration of the House of Bourbon. Although solicited to do so by Barras and Joseph Bonaparte, he did not take part in the coup d'état of the 30th Prairial. In modern Norwegian lists of kings he is called Charles III John. Ce ne sera pas le cas mais il obtient la Norvège, le 14 janvier 1814, en récompense de ses services. In July 1807 Bernadotte was named governor of the occupied Hanseatic cities of northern Germany. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-XIV-John, Napolean.org - Biography of Jean-Baptiste-Jules Bernadotte, The Napoleon Series - Biography of Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Bernadotte - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Visit to Paris, political suspicions still surrounded him, and was made commander of the Royal! 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